Bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery is a procedure undergone by patients suffering from severe obesity. This procedure deals with removing or reattaching a part of the stomach and the small intestine. People who have been trying to lose weight but have been unsuccessful in their attempts due to causes beyond their control such as malabsorption and gastric restrictions undergo this surgery to get rid of the extra weight they have been carrying around.
Since the procedure does not just involve the removal of extra fat and tissue, which can be gained back in a matter of time if not taken care of, the surgery on the other hand applies minimally invasive techniques so as to restrict the amount of food and nutrients the stomach can hold.
The procedure can be performed in one of the four ways:
- Gastric bypass
- Sleeve gastronomy
- Gastric band
- Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch
How Is The Procedure Performed?
This program is designed for adults struggling with obesity who have tried other dieting programs yet were unsuccessful.
GASTRIC BYPASS SURGERY: gastric bypass surgery is a permanent procedure which makes the size of the stomach smaller so the patient feels fuller whilst consuming lesser food, absorbing fewer minerals. This weight loss surgical procedure is irreversible. The procedure involves separating a small amount of stomach and reattaching both the smaller and the remaining stomach to the small intestine. As a result, the size of the stomach has been reduced and so the food absorbed will be less, making the patient feel fuller with less absorption of calories.
SLEEVE GASTRONOMY: the laparoscopic sleeve gastronomy procedure works by removing 80% of the stomach resulting in less absorption of food and lesser volume of calories consumed. It restricts the amount of food the stomach can hold and causes favorable changes in gut hormones that suppress hunger, satiety and reduce appetite.
>ADJUSTABLE GASTRIC BAND: this procedure involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portion of the stomach, dividing the stomach into two parts, the upper and the lower part. As a result of this procedure, the upper smaller portion the stomach is meant to absorb food and with the reduction in size, the capacity of food intake also reduces. This also helps in treating malabsorption.
BILIOPANCREATIC DIVERSION WITH DUODENAL SWITCH: this surgery involves separating the stomach into two parts, one smaller upper portion and the remaining larger portion. The upper smaller portion of the stomach is attached to the distal or the last portion of the small intestine. This way, 3/4th amount of the food that is taken gets directly digested and discharged through the small intestine.
Are There Any Risks Involved In A Bariatric Surgery?
This nonsurgical procedure takes about 20-30 minutes and patients can go home soon after it’s performed.
The Bariatric surgical procedure is a permanent irreversible procedure that addresses the issue of weight loss among patients for a longer, permanent time period as compared to other fat extraction techniques. When fat is extracted surgically, the fat or tissue that is extracted is regained over a period of time if the patient subjects to unhealthy eating habits.
However, even in bariatric surgery, there are some risks that can arise-
- Dilation of the esophagus if the patient overeats. The patient is required to adopt a fixed healthy diet post surgery.
- Changes in gut hormones can sometimes cause hormonal problems.
- Can cause deficiencies of protein, vitamins, minerals, iron, calcium and fat.
- Infection, as it requires a foreign device to remain in the body.